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Minggu, 17 Maret 2013

Info tentang Biology


Biology Note :
Pollution and Environmental Damage
A. Illegal Logging
w      Illegal logging causes damage in soil structure, land slides, flash floods, and declining biodiversity.
w      The regions which rich biological resources as national parks.
w      The purpose is to maintain forest conversation for all the living organism within.
B.  Air Pollution
w      Pollution is the introduction of substances, energy, living organism, or other components into the environment which cause a decline in the quality of the environment.
w      Substance or materials which cause pollution are called pollution.
w      A material is considered a pollution if it’s existence causes problems for living organism.
w      A material can be considered a pollution if:
1.    The amount of the substance exceeds the normal levels.
2.    The substance occurs in the wrong place.
3.    The substance occurs at the wrong time.
w      Clean and dry air is composed of nitrogen ( 78% ), oxygen ( 20,94% ), argon ( 0,93% ), and carbon dioxide ( 0,032% ).
   1.Components of Air Pollution
w      Air pollution can be caused by various pollutant. Composed, for instance, carbon monoxide, sulphur oxide, particles, CFCs, and lead.\
w      A. Carbon Monoxide ( CO ) : in areas with clean air, the level of CO is usually 0,1 ppm ( 0,00001% ).
w      Levels of CO pollution are a lot higher.
w      So that can be toxic and may cause eye irritation, pain in the respiratory tract and lugs.
w      CO with levels of more than 100 ppm can cause death.
w      B. Nitrogen oksida ( NOx ) / Nitrogen Oxide ( NOx ).
w      NOx in the atmosphere comes from products combustion motor vehicles, electric generations, or mature gas.
w      NOx in the atmosphere is non toxic.
w      In the presence of sunlight, NOx will react with water vapor in the atmosphere and produce nitrate acid.
w      C. Sulfur oksida ( SOx ) / sulphur oxide ( SO2 )
w      SOx consist of SOx ( sulphur dioxide ) and sulphur trioxide ( SO3 )gases.
w      SO2 has a strong odor, is non flammable, and does not cause corrosion.
w      SO3 is a reactive substance easily reacts with other substances and causes damage and corrosion.
w      Water vapor in the atmosphere will react with SO2 producing sulfurous acid.
w      While SO3 will produce sulphuric acid.
w      Sulphuric and sulfurous acid fall down to earth together with rain, causing acid rain.
w      D. Particle
w      Particles are pollutants in the atmosphere in the from of solids or liquids.
w      These particles which are dispersed in a gas medium are called an aerosol.
w      Types of aerosols are:
1.    Fog, is water droplets in gas;
2.    Smoke, is solid particles in gas. Fossil fuel combustio usually produces smoke;
3.    Dust, is fine solid particles with a diameter less than 500 micrometers.
w      E. Chlorofluoro Carbon ( CFCs )
w      CFCs are released from refrigerators, Styrofoam, sprayers such as hairsprays and parfume.
w      CFCs react with ozone ( O3 ) in the atmosphere resulting in the reduction of the ozone layer.
w      The ozone layer is very important because is filters ultraviolet radiation from sunlight.
w      F. Lead ( Pb )
w      Light lead poisoning can cause headache, exhaustion, and depression.
w      If it reaches a dangerous level, lead can cause brain damage.
   2. Impacts of Air Pollution
w      Change in the atmosphere composition is also called air pollution.
w      Air pollution can cause acid rain, damage of the ozone layer, the green house effect, and global warming.
w      A. Acid Rain
w      Substance or emissions such as carbon dioxide ( CO2 ), carbon monoxide  ( CO ), sulphur oxide ( SOx ), fine particles and nitrogen oxide ( NOx ).
w      If sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxide dissolved in rain water, they will create rain.
w      The consentration of acid in rain water depends on the SOx level.
w      Acidity may be measured based on the acid level called PH.
w      The scale of PH ranges from 0 to 14.
w      The lower the PH of a substance the more acid the substance.
w      For example the PH of unpolluted rain water ranges from 5.6 to 5.7 ; rain water with a PH of less than 5.6 is considered acid rain.
w      Acid rain can cause some disadvantages, for example :
1.    It dissolves calcium, natrium and other nutrients contained in the soil;
2.    It can kill plant tissues and disturb plant growth;
3.    Acid rain causes a decrease of the water’s PH to level lower than more;
4.    It can damage building.
w      B. Damage of the ozone layer.
w      Ozone ( O3 ) is a from of less stable oxygen ( O2 ).
w      Ozone can cause pollution if it is located near the surface of the earth.
w      But, if as long as it is in the stratosphere, about 20-40 km above the earth’s surface ozone is very useful to filter ultraviolet radiations from sunlight.
w      Ozone absorbs the UV radiation so that it will not reach the earth.
w      Ozone layer can be depleted by CFCs ( Freon ) which are used in :
1.    Chemical substance in sprayers, for example : hairspray and parfume;
2.    Cooling system and refrigenerators;
3.    Polystyrene foam.
w      CFC2 which are released into the air will move to the stratosphere.
w      CFC, they will then disintegrate and release chloride atoms which accelerate the convension of ozone into oxygen ( O2 ).
w      As a result the ozone layer is reduced. This condition will further create ozone holes.
w      What are the consequent of ozone holes?
w      If the ozone layer in stratosphere is depleting more UV radition will reach the surface of the earth.
w      The depletion of the ozone layer cause many problems for living organism, for example:
1.    It can cause skin cancer;
2.    It in creases the risk for cataracts, and causes eyes cancer in cows;
3.     It reduces human immunity;
4.    It decreases food production ( rice, corn, soybean )
w      C. Green House effect and global warming.
w      Glass materials makes the temperature inside a green house warmer compared to the outside.
w      This is because a green house traps the radiation energy from the sun and prevents it form going out.
w      Gases in the atmosphere keep the earth warm this called the green house effect.
w      The most effective gas to restrain heat reflection from the earth is carbon dioxide ( CO2 ).
w      If there is an excessive amount of CO2, the heat reflection from the earth may be blocked and there fore reflect back into the earth.
w      So, that temperature on the earth’s surface will increase significantly.
w      This phenomena is called global warming.
w      The increase in temperature’s on the earth’s surface will change the climate.
w      For example regions where it rarely rains may have a high rainfall.
w      While a high rainfall zone could get extremely dry.
w      An increase in temperature on the earth’s surface may also melt the ice at the poles, which will further increase the sea level.
w      CO2 iis the main pollution causing the green house effect and global warming.
  3. The Effect of Air Pollution on The Human Body
w      Air pollution may endanger human health and disturbed the fuction of certain organs such.
w      A. Eyes
w      Substances in smoke cause eye irritation.
w      B. Nose, throat, and lungs.
w      Ozone ( O3 ) may cause a burming feeling in the throat and nose irritation.
w      Ozone may also erode lungs.
w      C. Heart
w      When we inhale carbon monoxide ( CO ), it will bind the red blood cells.
w      This slows the red blood cells in performing it’s fuction to distrubet oxygen ( O2 ).
w      D. Brain
w      When we inhale carbon monoxide, the oxygen in the brains in decreased and there fore weakes our motor coordination and brain functions.
C. Water Pollution
w      Generally water on earth is not clean and pure, since it contains other substance which are dissolved in the water.
w      For example rain water contains SO4, CL, NH3, CO2, N2, C, O2, and dust.
w      Water from a spring contains Na, Mg, Ca, Fe, and O2, water also frequently contains microorganism.
w      Indication of polluted water are as follows:
1.    Change in water temperature;
§     The higher the water temperature, the less O2 that can be dissolved in the water.

2.     Change in the water PH;
§     Water may become acidic basic depending on it’s PH level on the amount of H+ ions.
3.     Change in water color, odor, and taste.
§     Clean water air color less, odor less, and taste less.
w      What cause water pollution?
w      Human activities pollute water source, such as rivers, lakes and coats.
w      Some human activities pollute are:
1.    Industrial waste which contains dangerous and toxic chemicals substance.
2.    Waste from household which consist of residual food.
w      Sewage from washing, sewage from bath drains, and sewage from restaurants.
w      Chemical substances as residue of pesticides, insecticides, plant fertilizers, and oil spills from tanker.
w      The impact of water pollution.
w      Polluted river water and ground water can not be utilized as drinking water.
a.     Water pollution caused by anorganic chemicals from plants fertilizer.
Farmers usually use fertilizers containing nitrogen and phosphate substance.
w      2. Change in water PH. Water may become acidic on basic depending on it’s PH level on the amount of H+ ions.
w      3. Changes in water color, odor, and taste.
w      Clean water air colorless, odorless, and tasteless.
w      What causes water pollution.
w      Human activities pollute water sources, such as rivers, lakes and coast.
w      Some human activities pollute water are:
a)    Industrial waste which contains dangerous and toxic chemical substances.
b)    Waste from house holds which consist of residual food.
w      Sewage from washing, sewage from bath drains and sewage from restroom.
w      Chemical substance as residue of pesticides, insecticides, plant fertilizers, and oil spills from tanker.
w      The impact of water pollution.
w      If polluted river water and ground water can not be utilized as drinking water.
w      A. Water pollution caused by organic chemicals from plants fertilizers.
w      Farmers usually use fertilizers containing nitrogen and phosphate suntances.
w      High level of nitrogen and nitrate ( NO3 ) in drinking water will cause problems in blood circulate systems, especially toddlers.
w      B. Water pollution caused by an organic chemicals in the from of acids, mineral salts, and metals ( for example; Pb, Cd, Hg ) in high levels.
w      Water pollution caused by an organic chemicals may cause the following problems:
1.    Water becoming unsuitable for drinking because it endangered health.
2.    Aquatic organism to die.
3.    Group production to decrease.
4.    Damage to equipment made from metals because the water becomes corrosive.
w      C. Water pollution caused by an organic chemicals.
w      Water pollution caused by organic chemicals such as oil, plastic, pesticides, cleaning agents, and detergent used by human.
w      D. Water pollution caused by radioactive substance dissolved in water
w      Radioactive substances affect the food chain and they also cause changes in hereditary materials ( DNA ) in a cell and causes mutations, cancer, and reproductive system disorders.
w      E. Eutrophication.
w      Wastes from agriculture, farms, and house holds frequently contains nitrates and phosphate.
w      Waste containing nitrates and phosphates which flow in the water works will stimulate excessive growth of algae this phenomenon is called eutrophication.
w      Because of eutropication many algae are die and the death algae are decomposed by bacteria and bacteria take O2 from water to decompose that algae so water of river/lake lack of O2, then many organism will die because of lacking of O2.
w      F. Ground water pollution.
w      The water used by us comes from surface water or ground water.
w      All kinds of pesticides are toxic if they enter water.
w      Pesticides are difficult to be decomposed by water micro organism.
w      Pesticides in excessive amount will also be stored as residue in plants.
w      Water pollution is caused by pollutants such as industrial waste, housed waste, and other chemicals.
w      Water pollution is dangerous to humans and can damage water ecosystems.





D. How to Prevent Pollution And Environmental Damage
w      1. Over coming air pollution.
w      Efforts to help prevent air pollution are as follows:
a)    Choosing product with non CFCs;
b)    Reducing the use of fossil fuels;
c)    Regularly checking the exhaust fumes in vehiely;
d)    Planting trees and other plants in houses;
e)     Conserving the environment, especially forest;
f)      Separating industrial areas from residential areas;
g)    Applying strict legal sanctions to industries which do not filter their exhaust fumes.
w      2. Over coming water pollution.
w      Efforts to help prevent water pollution are as follow:
a)    Providing collecting tanks in industries or factories
§     Before dumping waste into the environment, the must be collected in tanks and then processed with the three steps of the recycling process.
                               I.            Primary treatment. Is the mechanical process thorough filtering of coarse wastes. Example by using stones, pieces of wood, or sand.
                            II.            Seconding treatment. Is the biological process thorough the addition of aerobic bacteria to reduce 90% of the organic waste.
                         III.            Final treatment. Is the process to eliminate chemical and physical residues left by primary and secondary treatment. Final treatment is conducted by putting in disinfectants.
b)    Not using household cleaning agents excessively.
c)    Using biodegradable detergents.
d)    Monitoring the use of land for agriculture and the water flow for agriculture areas.
e)     Protecting the land near the coasts and lakes by planting mangrove trees.
w      3. Over coming soil pollution.
w      To prevent trash form polluting the environment, we need to do following efforts.
a)    Throwing trash into to proper places.
b)    Separing organic from an organic waste.
w      Organic waste can be decomposed by bacteria and saprophytic fungi.
w      Ex: leaves, fruit peels and food leftovers.
w      An organic waste can not be decomposed as quickly.
w      Ex: for instance, carbon boxes, plastic metals and glasses.
a)    Reusing and recycling wastes.
w      4. Monitoring pollution and environment damage.
w      Treatment of dangerous and toxics waste is done by government regulation.
w      Ministry of the environment has started several programs such as:
§     AMDAL ( Analisis Mengenai Dampak Lingkngan or Environment Impact Assessment ).
§     PROKASIH ( Program Kali Bersih or Clean River Programs ).
§     PLB  ( Program Langit Biru or Blue Sky Program ).
§     The purpose of these program is to observe and maintain the quality of our living environment.
w      Over coming pollution and environmental damage thorough close conyrol is conduced through several programs such as : AMDAL, PROKASIH, and PLB.
w      5. Over coming pollution and environmental damage thorough education.
w      Education can be done thorough the internet, radio, television, news paper, magazine or posters.
w      Students should not be allowed to throw trash carelessly.
w      And always thorw trash into the proper places.
w      Through the UKS ( Unit Kesehatan Sekolah or School Health Unit ), students need to become educated as potential candidates for performing health services.
w      Over coming pollution and environment damage thorough close control is conducted through several programs such as AMDAL (Environmental Impact Assesment ), PROKASIH ( Clean River Program ), and PLB ( Blue Sky Program ).

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